Who were The Assassins: Lee Harvey Oswald

Lee Harvey Oswald

The One Who ‘Sums It All Up’

We’ve reached the end of our series about the assassins of Assassins and our production opens this weekend. All the profiles are online for you to read, and we’ve sprinkled in details relevant to the show throughout each one.

Lee Harvey Oswald

Assassinated President John F. Kennedy

Lee Harvey Oswald was a US Marine, a one-time defector to the Soviet Union, and the assassin of President John F. Kennedy.

As a child, Oswald’s troubled relationship with his mother and other family members led him to act out socially and in school. He was evaluated by psychiatrists throughout his childhood who found him to be withdrawn and secretive. As a teenager he became enamored with socialist literature before joining the US Marines. He was court-marshaled twice for insubordination and the misuse of firearms while in the military.

Communists, Intelligence Agencies, Assassins, Oh My!

After leaving the military to care for his ailing mother, Oswald made a shocking move. He travelled to the Soviet Union where he attempted to become a citizen and live in the rival superpower nation. Oswald did not enjoy Soviet life, and soon made a return to America after getting married to a Russian woman.

After his resettlement in the US, Oswald’s life became populated with strange characters and coincidences that have fueled decades of speculation. Did the FBI cultivate him as an asset and encourage his pro-Cuba leafleting activities to entrap communists? Did the CIA assign him a handler to keep tabs on an unstable, one-time defector?

An early photo of Oswald with a rifle

Oswald’s eccentricities and political obsessions continued. During this time, he attempted to assassinate a retired Major General- his unsuccessful attempt only uncovered after he was investigated for Kennedy’s murder.

Killing Kennedy

On November 22nd, Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository, down onto Dallas’s Dealey Plaza, killing President Kennedy. He had secured a job in the building a month earlier and used the vantage point afforded by the higher floor to scope out his target. He evaded capture by authorities for a little over an hour before he was tracked down and arrested inside of a movie theatre. Encountering a group of reporters after his arrest, he yelled that he was a “patsy”.

JFK rides in a motorcade moments before his assassination

The nation reacted to news of President Kennedy’s death with complete shock. This public and grisly assassination darkened a hopeful time in American life that the young, handsome President had symbolized. Two days after the assassination, Oswald was being walked to an armored van by police, intending to transfer him from city jail to county jail. Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner shot him in anger, killing Oswald and preventing him from ever testifying in court.

Legacy of a Tragedy

Despite the conclusions of the Warren Commission, and investigations by the FBI and Dallas Police, polls still show that most Americans still do not believe the official story of the Kennedy Assassination. Whether their alternate theories contain speculation about US Intelligence, multiple assassins, mobsters or magic bullets, the lack of clarity around Oswald’s motives still confounds.

If you want to get a closer look at Oswald’s desires and demons, and see what was possibly on his mind, come see Assassins at Landmark!

Further Reading

Meet our Oswald – Lucas Dysart

Lucas returns to the stage at Landmark as Lee Harvey Oswald in Landmark’s production of Assassins. Audiences have seen Lucas as a featured ensemble member in Rent and Hunchback of Notre Dame.

In The News: Assassins featured in The Beachcomber

Landmark’s upcoming production of Assassins has been featured in the Beachcomber with special attention given to the “Season of Sondheim” happening in Southern California.

Landmark Theater will extend the focus on Sondheim throughout the LA area this spring by bringing this powerful Sondheim work to Long Beach, opening April 28. Inside the frame of an all-American, yet sinister, carnival, “Assassins” illuminates the stories of several historical figures who attempted (successfully or not) to assassinate American Presidents.

The Beachcomber

Read the Full Article Online at the Beachcomber

Who Were the Assassins: John Wilkes Booth

Who Were the Assassins: John Wilkes Booth
Who Were the Assassins: John Wilkes Booth

“Here’s our pioneer”

We near the conclusion of our series about the assassins of Assassins  as we are putting the finishing touches on our production that opens this Friday!

John Wilkes Booth

Assassinated President Abraham Lincoln

John Wilkes Booth was a secessionist, actor and the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln.

Hailing from the famous Booth theatrical family, John, along his brothers Edwin and Junius, followed in the footsteps of their father as popular theater actors through the 1850s and 60s.

John was a sensation on the stage, becoming known for his energetic, hilarious performances and good looks. He was a huge hit with the ladies, receiving fan mail almost constantly.

A Plot To Kidnap Lincoln

Booth held deep pro-slavery convictions even before the Civil War, evidenced by his attendance at the hanging of the abolitionist John Brown. But as the conflict between North and South began in earnest in 1860, Booth made fiery public statements and hardened private sentiments against the Union.

While his star rose in the acting world, he gathered a group of conspirators and hatched a plot to end the war by kidnapping Lincoln. As his family relationships fell apart over his extreme views, he corresponded secretly with Confederate Intelligence.

After news of Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, Booth became enraged and dispensed with the kidnapping plan. He was now resolved to kill the President.

Sic Semper Tyrannis

Booth’s conspiracy was re-engineered. The goal was now to kill the top-ranking members of the Union government- President Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of State William Seward.

Booth made his move while Lincoln attended a performance at Ford’s Theater, where the actor was a familiar face and free to roam the premises. He snuck into the President’s box during a performance of the play Our American Cousin and shot him in the back of the head with a pistol, soon after jumping down onto the stage where he shouted “Sic Semper Tyrannis”, Latin for “thus always to tyrants”. He made his escape into the night, aided by a compatriot waiting in the stables with a horse.

A Shocked Nation

There is simply no modern equivalent to this gruesome and bloody event, especially given the odd clash of public figures. A young heartthrob actor taking aim at a President would have been just as wild back then as it would be now. Imagine Timothée Chalamet taking aim at the Head of State during a screening of Frozen. That’s how crazy it was.

Thousands upon thousands of mourners filled the streets as Booth attempted to escape into the marshes of the South. Booth’s co-conspirators had failed. Secretary Seward was injured but alive, and the man sent to kill Vice President Johnson had gotten cold feet.

Newspapers of all persuasions decried the senseless violence and cowardice of John Wilkes Booth, though some observed that the oh-so-shocked editorial sentiments of pro-South papers didn’t exactly ring true after so many years of propagandizing and fear-mongering about Lincoln and abolition.

Useless, Useless

Union authorities tracked Booth down at Garrett Farm in Virginia, where he had supposedly lied about his identity in order to stay with a local family. After surrounding him in a barn, he refused to surrender to Union forces, and they set the building ablaze. As the building began to burn, he moved around inside, allowing a Union Soldier to shoot him. He was removed from the burning building, mortally wounded. Dramatic to the end, Booth looked at his hands and muttered “Useless, useless” before he died.

The death of John Wilkes Booth

For Further Research:

Meet our Booth – Jay Dysart

Jay portrays John Wilkes Booth in Landmark’s production of Assassins. Audiences will recognize Jay from some of his previous appearances at Landmark as Andrews in Titanic, Frollo in Hunchback, Professor Bhaer in Little Women, and Orin Scrivello DDS in Little Shop of Horrors.

In the News: ASSASSINS featured in the Press Telegram & Grunion Gazette

Landmark’s production of Assassins has been featured in the Press Telegram and Grunion Gazette with a fantastic preview article. The excellent new Arts & Culture writer Willie Plaschke has added depth and context about this fascinating musical and highlighted many of the most important elements of why Landmark is producing this show in bold fashion at this particular time.

Next weekend, Long Beach Landmark Theatre Company brings this darkly comedic vision to Long Beach audiences in “Assassins,” the musical by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman.

“Assassins” presents a world in which discontent simmers in the American psyche. Follow nine hauntingly complicated protagonists as they attempt to follow their dreams and make their mark by assassinating American presidents.

– Willie Plaschke, Long Beach Press Telegram & Grunion Gazette

The cast and crew of Landmark’s production of “Assassins” hope to lean heavily into the symbolism of presidential assassinations and what’s beneath the story, as opposed to the physical trappings of guns and gun violence itself.

Ultimately, Landmark Theatre strives to connect.

“We want our audiences to feel that their experience with us from the time they arrive to the time they leave the show has been an experience of a very sacred space,” said O’Toole, Landmark’s artistic director. “This is theater made for, and by, the community that we serve. In our core values, service is fundamental to who we are.”

This remarkable production opens next weekend, April 28, and runs until May 14.

– Willie Plaschke, Long Beach Press Telegram & Grunion Gazette

Read the whole article online here: Enjoy Sondheim’s darkly comedic vision at the Long Beach Landmark Theater Company

Who Were the Assassins: John Hinckley Jr and Samuel Byck

Another round of Would-be Assassins

We conclude our assassin profiles from Assassins with two more characters who didn’t seal the deal, and became well-known for their failures.

Samuel Byck

Attempted to assassinate President Richard Nixon

Samuel Byck was a US Army Veteran who attempted to kill Richard Nixon in 1974. After his discharge from the army, Byck failed in several business ventures and came to believe that the Nixon administration was conspiring against poor people. He sent threatening recording and messages to several figures he considered to be powerful, including Richard Nixon, Jonas Salk, and Leonard Bernstein. Though the Secret Service was aware of his ravings, they considered him to be a harmless eccentric (known for dressing in a Santa Claus suit) and did not intervene.

Byck carrying a picket sign

On February 22, 1974, Byck attempted to hijack a plane at the Baltimore/Washington International Airport. He intended to fly it into the White House to kill President Nixon. The pilots on the plane that he hijacked were able to temporarily distract him and call for help, and authorities quickly halted his attempt. In his desperation, Byck shot the pilots and another airline employee. Two of them died. When his attempt seemed destined to fail, he took his own life.

John Hinckley Jr.

Attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan

John Hinckley Jr. attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan in 1981. In his early life, Hinckley attempted to make a living as a songwriter, though he was unsuccessful. He wrote letters to his parents that contained pleas for money, and lies about a girlfriend that he never had.

After the release of the 1976 film Taxi Driver, Hinckley became obsessed with the actress Jodi Foster, and wrote letters to her professing his love. After stalking her and failing to meet her, he hatched a plan to impress her by assassinating President Ronald Reagan.

Reagan and his team, moments before the attempt on his life

On March 30th, 1981, Hinckley shot at Reagan with a revolver as he left the Washington DC Hilton Hotel. He wounded four people in total, including the President, who was struck in the chest by a bullet that ricocheted off of a car. None of the wounded men died, although Press Secretary James Brady was left partially paralyzed for the rest of his life.

John Hinckley Jr’s booking photo

At his 1982 trial, Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity, though he was ruled to be a danger to society. Instead of prison, Hinckley was placed in a psychiatric hospital for decades. In 2022, he was unconditionally released from psychiatric care. He plans to produce an album of songs.

More Resources:

Samuel Byck:

John Hinckley:

Meet our Byck – Corey Shaw

Corey returns to the stage at Landmark as Samuel Byck in Assassins. Corey was last seen at Landmark as a Gargoyle in Hunchback of Notre Dame, and has been an invaluable part of the behind-the-scenes production teams of RentWorking, and Little Shop of Horrors, among many others.

Meet our Hinckley – Mark Waters

Mark will be back on stage at Landmark as John Hinckley Jr in Assassins. Audiences will recognize Mark from his roles as Frederick Fleet in Titanic, St. Aphrodisius in Hunchback of Notre Dame, and various characters cursing onstage in Working: a Musical.

Who Were the Assassins: Giuseppe Zangara

Introducing Giuseppe Zangara
Giuseppe Zangara

FDR’s Would-Be Assassin

Today we highlight another assassin who didn’t get the job done – at least not as he intended.

Giuseppe Zangara

Attempted Assassin of President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Giuseppe Zangara was a would-be Presidential assassin who attempted to kill Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. An Italian immigrant and veteran of World War I, Zangara was deeply resentful of rich capitalists, and suffered from painful physical ailments that further embittered him.

About two months before FDR’s first inauguration, the soon-to-be President was in Miami, giving a speech in the Bayfront Park area. Zangara, having recently purchased a revolver, was among the crowd. The tortured veteran stood only five feet tall, and worked desperately to see over the heads and hats of the lively crowd. When he got close enough to spy the future President, he pointed his gun over the shoulder of a woman named Lillian Cross, and fired.

Mugshot of Giuseppe Zangara

Zangara’s bullet missed the President-elect entirely, but injured several others, and mortally wounded the mayor of Chicago, Anton Cermak. Lillian Cross grabbed the would-be assassin’s arm, and soon the crowd was on him, pummeling him furiously. FDR himself prevented the crowd from killing Zangara, urging them to let the justice system decide his fate.

Zangara’s Arrest

Zangara was quickly tried and sentenced to death for killing the Chicago mayor. The Anarchist Assassin insisted that he wasn’t afraid of the chair, and reiterated his hatred for capitalists. He was executed by electric chair on March 20th. In his final statement, he bade goodbye to “Poor people everywhere”.

Front page of the Miami Herald after the attempt. Lillian Cross’s photo is outlined.

Doctors who performed Zangara’s autopsy concluded that the acute pain he experienced throughout his life was due to adhesions on his gallbladder. Throughout his life, Zangara’s intense pain had been misdiagnosed and mistreated as appendicitis.

More Reading:

Meet our Zangara – Charlie Carlos

Charlie Carlos

Charlie portrays Giuseppe Zangara in Landmark’s production of Assassins. Audiences will recognize Charlie most recently from his role in Working, and from past performances as Harold Bride in Titanic, Leaf Coneybear in the 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, and John Brooke in Little Women.

Who Were The Assassins: Charles Guiteau

Another Assassin from Assassins

The characters in Stephen Sondheim’s musical are drawn from American history. Many are memorable names and figures, but some may be surprisingly un-familiar. We continue our journey through the historical characters from Assassins as we are preparing our upcoming production.

Charles Guiteau

Assassinated President James A. Garfield

Charles Guiteau was a deeply troubled and strange man who killed President James A. Garfield in 1881.

Guiteau was a social outcast who failed out of jobs, schools, and even sex cults. He lived in the Utopian “Oneida Community” and was a deep admirer of its founder, John Humphrey Noyes, who espoused a belief in group marriages. But Guiteau wasn’t deemed fit for even the freest love, and was soon nicknamed “Charles Gitout” by community members put off by his ravings and upsetting demeanor.

Guiteau drifted through a pitiful career as a lawyer, a failed marriage, and a plagiarized attempt at starting his own cult in the ensuing years, alienating himself from the world while become more and more convinced of his own genius and righteousness.

In 1880, Guiteau wrote a political speech in support of James A. Garfield for president, which was distributed to members of the Republican National Committee, and delivered publicly only twice. He convinced himself that his contribution to the campaign was vital in securing Garfield’s victory, and demanded a consulship in return. His demands were ignored by members of Garfield’s administration, which filled Guiteau with rage.

An artist’s rendering of the attack on President Garfield by Charles Guiteau

On July 2nd, 1881, Guiteau lied in wait for President Garfield at a train station, and shot him twice in the back. Though the president’s wounds would have been considered quite treatable by today’s standards, sterilized medical operations would not become the norm in America until several years later. Garfield died 11 weeks after the attack.

Guiteau’s trial became a media curiosity as he argued with his defense, made strange outbursts, and defended himself with original poetry. Before he was executed by hanging, he recited an original poem titled “I Am Going To The Lordy”.

After Guiteau’s death, his body and brain became objects of fascination in the medical community. Abnormally thick dura matter in the brain seemed to indicate that he suffered from neurosyphilis, which some believed to explain Guiteau’s deteriorating relationship with reality in the later years of his life.

For further reading/listening:

Meet our Guiteau – Phineas Wilder

Phineas Wilder

Phineas portrays Charles Guiteau in his first show with Landmark. A graduate of Sarah Lawrence College, he also attended the British American Drama Academy in London. Past shows include The Drowsy Chaperone (Underling), Best and Only (Jud), and Preludes From Moonlight (Richard).

💡 Phineas also penned this hilarious article about Assassins for Broadway Beat: Oops: Local Man Typed “Assassins” Lyrics Into Google and Now He’s On an FBI Watchlist

Introducing ‘Dinner & A Show’

Dinner & A Show
Dinner & A Show

Landmark is proud to partner with some fantastic local downtown restaurants to bring you a new “Dinner & A Show” program. For a very limited time, a $50 donation to Landmark’s Dinner & A Show fundraiser will get you a $50 gift card for a nice pre-show dinner near the theater, along with a drink or popcorn in the Courtyard Cafe.

Support Landmark and enjoy a complete evening

Start your evening with a lovely dinner at one of our partner restaurants (reservations recommended) and get $50 off! Then join us starting one-hour before showtime in the beautiful Courtyard Cafe to enjoy a free drink or popcorn.

After the show, take a pleasant stroll back to the restaurant to enjoy and after-show drink and lively post-show discussion as your hearts and minds are overflowing with music and ideas from Sondheim’s Assassins.

Our Restaurant Partners

These restaurants are all within walking distance of Landmark at the First Congregational Church.

Our Partner Restaurants

💡 Availability of this program is limited and restaurants are subject to change. Make your plans now to take advantage of this great offer!


La Traviata (Fri/Sat Only) – https://latraviata301.com/

Across the street from the venue, La Traviata serves an award-winning Nuevo Italian menu and features live music.

King’s Fish Househttps://www.kingsfishhouse.com/

2 blocks away, King’s is a long beach destination for out-of-this-world seafood in an elegant atmosphere on Pine Ave.

The Ordinariehttps://www.theordinarie.com/

On the Promenade, an easy 7-minute walk to the venue, The Ordinarie is an american tavern with hearty comfort food an a fabulous cocktail program.


Choose your preferred restaurant partner and Landmark will mail you a $50 gift card, along with instructions for use and a voucher for your free drink or popcorn in the Courtyard Cafe.

Please note:

  • Gift Cards must be mailed, so if you do want to use your discount on the night of the show, you must purchase at least 5 days in advance. (use on show-night is not required).
  • Restaurant choices are subject to availability as Landmark has a limited quantity of gift cards for each restaurant. We will do our best to fulfill your choice, but will reach out if a substitution is necessary.